Lesson Plan - Get It!
You've probably seen pictures of totem poles created by natives of the Pacific Northwest. Or maybe you've seen some in person!
- Have you ever wondered what the animal symbols on the poles mean?
A totem pole tells the history of a family or a clan, mostly through animal symbols. Eagles, bears, ravens, whales, frogs, beavers, and wolves are the most common animals used. Each animal has specific characteristics that resemble the person, family, or clan it represents.
- Which characteristics do you think each of these animals represents?
The Pacific Northwest tribes had forests filled with animals to hunt, trees for building houses, and waterways full of fish to eat. They could meet all their basic needs, so they had time to devote to art, culture, and trade.
They lived in the areas from the southern coast of Alaska to Oregon State.
Image [cropped] by Spacenut525, via Wikimedia Commons, was released into the public domain.
Throughout the lesson, write down what you learn about the homes, food, skills, natural resources, languages, and culture of these tribes. You'll use this information later in the Got It? section.
Watch the following video for an introduction to the Pacific Northwest tribes.
One of the main art forms the Northwest people developed was the totem pole. Watch the following video to learn more.
Along with totem poles, Northwestern natives carved other things out of wood. They carved stone as well.
They created — and still create — very colorful, stylized art. Explore some of these works of art at Infinity of Nations.
Then, watch the video below.
The Northwest people developed various ceremonies and rituals.
One common tradition is the potlatch. A potlatch was a great feast given by a wealthy man to which he would invite many guests. The feast would celebrate important events, such as raising a totem pole, and the host would distribute some of his wealth by giving the guests many gifts.
The party would go on for many days with much feasting, storytelling, and dancing.
Potlatches were banned in the 1800s by the U.S. and Canadian governments, who saw them as a waste of wealth and resources. However, the bans were lifted in the 1950s, and many tribes continued the tradition.
Another interesting part of Pacific Northwestern culture is that many tribes were matrilineal.
It means that clan membership was based on the mother's clan and that property was owned by the women and passed down from mothers to their children.
Like many Native American tribes, the Northwest tribes' cultures included origin stories explaining where their people came from and other traditional stories, songs, dances, and craft skills passed from generation to generation.
Watch a native woman weave a ceremonial robe in this next video.
The native Northwest people had a widespread trade route from what is now Washington state up the coast to Alaska. Many natives grew rich through trade. They traded with other tribes and later with Europeans.
- furs, especially of sea otters and seals
- dried fish, especially salmon
- shells used to make jewelry and tools
- woven blankets and baskets
Now, meet some of the tribes of the Northwest!
The Chinook lived along the Columbia River in what is now the states of Washington and Oregon.
Like the other tribes of this area, they lived off the forests, ocean, and rivers by hunting, fishing, and trading. They made plank-houses and canoes from cedar trees, clothing, baskets, and other items.
The Chinook developed a special language just for trade and became known as the great traders of the Northwest.
Watch a portion of the following video to see how they harvested the cedar trees and how many things they were used for!
The Tlingit (pronounced klinket) lived along the coast of southern Alaska and northern British Columbia. Many of the men were woodcarvers, and many of the women wove baskets.
Many Tlingit families grew wealthy, owning furs, blankets, and other items. A wealthy man would have a potlatch to share his wealth and, in return, would be invited to others' potlatches to receive gifts.
Listen to a Tlingit man explain Tlingit clans in the first video below and the importance of the potlatch in the second.
The Haida are related to the Tlingit and live on the islands near the coast of southern Alaska and northwest British Columbia.
However, their main homeland is the Haida Gwaii archipelago. It came to be known as the Queen Charlotte Islands but was returned to the Haida in 2010.
Watch the following to learn how the Haida people are trying to revive their culture and language.
The Kwakiutl (pronounced kwah-kee-oo-tl) people live along the coast of Alaska and British Columbia.
Watch the following video to see if they resemble the tribes you've already learned about!
The Kwakiutl have another name, Kwakwaka'wakw, which means speakers of the Kwak'wala language.
The Kwak'wala language, like many Northwest natives, is complicated to learn and has sounds that we don't use in English. Listen to the Lord's Prayer in Kwak'wala and try to pick up on those unusual sounds!
Now that you've learned about the natives of the Pacific Northwest, head over to the Got It? section to organize your facts on these tribes and develop some ideas on how to preserve their cultures!