Lesson Plan - Get It!
- Do you see the similarities between this quote from John Locke and this excerpt from the Declaration of Independence?
English Civil War
John Locke was born in England into an upper-class family in 1632, so he was still young when the English Civil War broke out in 1642 between the monarchy and the Parliament.
The war began when those in Parliament felt the King had been exercising too much power. These Parliamentarians, as they were known, wanted the legislative body to have more of a role in the decisions of the nation.
As you watch The English Civil War Explained, from Royal Armouries, pay attention to the three major issues that caused the war:
John Locke's father joined the Parliamentarians and led a cavalry during the conflict.
- How do you think being raised on Parliament's side might have influenced Locke's thinking?
John Locke spearheaded British Empiricism, a philosophical movement that asserted rationalism was the only way to the truth.
Rationalism is the belief that reason and facts matter more than religion or experience.
During this Age of Reason, Locke asserted three new perspectives for society that were influenced by his own upbringing during the English Civil War. These perspectives heavily influenced the Founding Fathers.
As you look at each of Locke's ideas below, try to connect them to what you know about the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
Role of Religion
John Locke's A Letter Concerning Toleration, published in 1689, contains the following excerpts:
"For the civil government can give no new right to the church, nor the church to the civil government. So that, whether the magistrate join himself to any church, or separate from it, the church remains always as it was before - a free and voluntary society."
"And such is the nature of the understanding, that it cannot be compelled to the belief of anything by outward force."
- Knowing that John Locke witnessed a war over a monarch who claimed a divine right and attempted to assert his own religious views on the public, can you see why he may have developed these views?
The idea that religion was a strictly personal choice and had no place in government was a completely new one at this time. Even the Parliamentarians, with whom his father had sided, simply wanted to enforce Protestantism in the same way that King Charles sought to enforce Catholicism.
This idea of a separation between church and state heavily influenced the structure of the new government in the United States.
Read this excerpt from the First Amendment in the Bill of Rights:
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..."
Inalienable or Natural Rights
John Locke's assessment of the English Civil War colored his ideas on who held the power in society.
- Did the king hold the power? Parliament? The people?
As you watch John Locke, Natural Rights, from NBC News Learn, listen for phrases and ideas that you may have heard before:
Locke proposed another new idea: that the power governments hold is directly given by the people. Because of this, there are fundamental things that exist with or without a central body or government.
This principle encourages the idea that a limited government is also the freest. It is also from where the Declaration of Independence's clause "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" comes.
The Second Amendment in the Bill of Rights reads:
"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed."
- Can you see how this amendment stems from the idea of natural rights?
Because of his life experiences, John Locke believed the ability of a nation to rise up was one of the most fundamental rights of its citizens.
Having just fought the American Revolution, the Founding Fathers also believed this idea was important for the preservation of liberty.
Continue on to the Got It? section to further examine the right to bear arms in context with Locke's ideas about government and to attempt to determine what the Founding Fathers likely intended by the Second Amendment.