The Periodic Table

Contributor: Hannah Brooks. Lesson ID: 12417

Do you go shopping? Is it easy to find what you're looking for, be it food, toys, or clothes? That's because items are grouped according to a system, with similar things together. Same with elements!



learning style
personality style
Grade Level
Middle School (6-8)
Lesson Type
Dig Deeper

Lesson Plan - Get It!

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  • Which desk below looks easier to work at?

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It is easier to work clean and organized.

  • How do you organize your study materials?
  • How do chemists organize their study materials?

Keeping track of your work can be hard, so you develop organizational techniques to help.

The same is true in science!

There are 118 elements in our world (2023). Scientists have developed a tool to help them organize all these substances, called the periodic table of the elements.



The periodic table holds all known elements, even those created in a lab setting. It organizes elements based on the atomic number or number of protons. The first element is hydrogen because it only has one proton.

The periodic table is read from left to right, reading each row completely. So, while helium is not directly beside hydrogen, it is the next element with only two protons.

The rows on the periodic table are called periods, while the columns are called groups.

Notice how hydrogen is in period one, group one. Helium is in period one, but group 18.

The placement of elements into groups and periods is important because it can tell you about similar properties. The atomic structure impacts the element's behavior, so elements can be grouped based on recurring properties.

Another way elements are grouped on the periodic table is by the metallic nature of the atom.

Elements can be divided into metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Each group is easily identifiable on the periodic table shown below.

periodic table of metals

Metals are solid at room temperature (except for Mercury), can conduct heat and electricity, and generally have a shiny surface called luster.

Metals are also ductile, which can be pulled into thin pieces. They are also malleable or can be hammered into sheets.

The atomic structure of metals allows for electrons to transfer to other atoms, creating chemical bonds easily.


Nonmetals , the yellow section in the image, are very different from metals.

Nonmetals are poor conductors for heat and electricity, can be liquid or gas at room temperature, and usually accept electrons during a bond.

liquid nitrogen

Finally, the pink section shows metalloids.

Metalloids have some metallic characteristics and some nonmetallic characteristics. They can conduct electricity but are not as flexible as true metals.

Many metalloids are used in computers and cell phones as semi-conductors.

silicone chip

As you can see, each element has a location on the periodic table that provides valuable information.


Study the image above.

Write down all the information you are given about silicon in the orange box, and answer the following questions (before clicking on them for the answers!).

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The periodic table provides organized information for each element on our planet.

Chemists use the information provided by the periodic table daily. Elements in groups and periods have similar properties, which helps us predict chemical behavior.

To understand the information provided in the periodic table, you have to be able to read it.

In the Got It? section, use an interactive to review how to read the periodic table.

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